Uses of information technology

Information and communication technology We are in a digital era. It is difficult to think of any event in our daily life that is not using Information and Communication Technology. Our schools and classrooms are no exceptions. This course is meant for introducing you with these technologies with the intension that you meaningfully integrate technology … Read more

e-governance and e- commerce,

E- Governance E-government refers to the delivery of national or local government information and services via the Internet or other digital means to citizens or businesses or other governmental agencies. E-government is a one-stop Internet gateway to major government services. E-government facilitates provision of relevant government information in electronic form to the citizens in a … Read more

Types of missiles with reference to the India Missile Programme

India’s Missile program   Introduction India’s missile programme took a shot from space programme, beginning 1967. In 1972, Rohini- a 560 two-stage, solid propulsion sounding rocket was developed and test fired India first launched its small 17-tonne SLV-3 space booster in 1979 India successfully injected the 35 kg Rohini I satellite into near-earth orbit in … Read more

Various chemical and biological weapons

Various chemical and biological weapons chemical weapons A chemical weapon is any toxic chemical that can cause death, injury, incapacitation, and sensory irritation, deployed via a delivery system, such as an artillery shell, rocket, or ballistic missile. Chemical weapons are considered weapons of mass destruction and their use in armed conflict is a violation of … Read more

Role of drdo in various fields (other than weapons)

Role of drdo in various fields (other than weapons) The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is an agency of the Republic of India, charged with the military’s research and development, headquartered in New Delhi, India. It was formed in 1958 by the merger of the Technical Development Establishment and the Directorate of Technical Development … Read more

States of Matter

States of Matter Solids are formed when the attractive forces between individual molecules are greater than the energy causing them to move apart. Individual molecules are locked in position near each other, and cannot move past one another. The atoms or molecules of solids remain in motion. However, that motion is limited to vibrational energy; … Read more

Allotropes of carbon

Allotropes of carbon Allotropy is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, or allotropes, when found in nature. There are several allotropes of carbon. Diamond Diamond is probably the most well known carbon allotrope. The carbon atoms are arranged in a lattice, which is a variation of the … Read more

pH Scale and importance of pH in daily life

Acid An acid is a substance which forms H+ ions as the only positive ion in aqueous solution. Examples:- Hydrochloric acid dissolved in water forms H+ and Cl– ions HCl —> H+ + Cl–   Sulphuric acid dissolved in water forms H+ and SO42- ions H2SO4 —>2H+ + SO42-   Nitric acid forms H+ and NO3– ions when dissolved in water HNO3 —> H+ + NO3–   … Read more

Corrosion and its prevention

Corrosion is defined as an attack on a material as a result of chemical, frequently electrochemical reaction, with the surrounding medium. According to this definition, the term corrosion can be applied to all materials, including non-metals. But in practice, the word corrosion is mainly used in conjunction with metallic materials. Why do metals corrode? Apart … Read more


Catalyst Catalyst, in chemistry, any substance that increases the rate of a reaction without itself being consumed. Enzymes are naturally occurring catalysts responsible for many essential biochemical reactions. Most solid catalysts are metals or the oxides, sulfides, and halides of metallic elements and of the semimetallic elements boron, aluminum, and silicon. Gaseous and liquid catalysts … Read more

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