Bushmen The indigenous people of Southern Africa, whose homeland covers much of Botswana, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland and Angola, are often also known as Bushmen or the San people. They are traditionally nomadic hunters and gatherers who moved over vast areas of land throughout Southern Africa. The Bushmen are split … Read more

Migration And Metropolitan Regions

 Migration and Metropolitan Region Migration Migration has been defined as crossing of the boundary of a political or administrative unit for a certain minimum period of time. It includes the movements of refugees, displaced persons, uprooted people as well as economic migrants. Internal migration refers to a move from one area (a province, … Read more

Natural Hazards And Natural Disasters

 Natural Hazards and Natural Disasters A natural hazard is a threat of a naturally occurring event will have a negative effect on humans. This negative effect is what we call a natural disaster.  In other words when the hazardous threat actually happens and harms humans, we call the event a natural disaster. Natural … Read more

Advance Infrastructure In Rural Areas (2)

 Advance Infrastructure in Rural Areas Good quality infrastructure is critical to sustainable growth, especially for rural areas. As over 60 per cent of the population lives in rural areas, with low levels of per capital income, there is need to impart greater attention in improving rural infrastructure. Currently the rural infrastructure is inadequate … Read more

Flood And Drought Occurence

 Flood and Drought Occurrence Drought Drought is a complex, slow-onset phenomenon of ecological challenge that affects people more than any other natural hazards by causing serious economic, social and environmental losses in both developing and developed countries. The period of unusual dryness (i.e. drought) is a normal feature of the climate and weather … Read more

Salinity Of Oceans

 Salinity of oceans Salinity is defined as the ratio between the weight of the dissolved materials and the weight of the sample sea water. Generally, salinity is defined as ‘the total amount of solid material in grams contained in one kilogram of sea water and is expressed as part per thousand (%o) e.g., … Read more

Interior Of The Earth

 Interior of the earth- composition and physical conditions   Core, mantle, and crust are divisions based on composition. The crust makes up less than 1 percent of Earth by mass, consisting of oceanic crust and continental crust is often more felsic rock. The mantle is hot and represents about 68 percent of Earth’s … Read more


 FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF TOWN AND PROBLEM OF HUMAN SETTLEMENT The definition of function varies across the disciplines. In political science it refers to duties, in mathematics it means the relationship between two variables and in geography it is synonymous to occupation. Geographers have classified towns on the basis of their site, situation, size, … Read more


 Elements Chemical element, also called element, any substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by ordinary chemical processes. Elements are the fundamental materials of which all matter is composed. At present there are 118 known chemical elements. About 20 percent of them do not exist in nature (or are present only in … Read more

Marine Resources

 Marine Resources – Economic significance and EEZ Economic significance of marine resources Marine energy Marine energy or marine power (also sometimes referred to as ocean energy, ocean power, or marine and hydrokinetic energy) refers to the energy carried by ocean waves, tides, salinity, and ocean temperature differences. The movement of water in the … Read more

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