Moral values (rights and Duties; Good and Virtues)
Man has the quality of thinking, if he makes this process so far as he becomes able to establish a relation with itself, through this process of thinking, in the sense that he does not see itself simply as an executor of the actions, but simultaneously as observer, as a judge. So through this report man establishes a dialogue with himself, feels associated with himself and physically alone. The realization of this potential that every person carries makes the man a person and his activity starting from himself and others shows a personality.
Moral values are the standards of good and evil, which govern an individual‟s behavior and choices. Individual‟s morals may derive from society and government, religion, or self. When moral values derive from society and government they, of necessity, may change as the laws and morals of the society change. An example of the impact of changing laws on moral values may be seen in the case of marriage vs. “living together.”
Value is a mixture of three concepts such as Idea, Quality and Supervening. Values can be defined as the principles that guide people’s lives, and have varying significance. Values are the essence of our personality, and affect us to make decisions, trust people, and arrange our time and energy in our social life. Values may be treated as keys to solving many world problems.
The term „duty‟ is sometimes used in a narrower sense to mean simply what is legally binding or obligatory upon an individual, and an individual is said to do more than his duty if he does more than what he is legally bound to do. In Ethics, however, the word „duty‟ is taken in a wider and higher sense to signify every right act which one ought to perform, whether determinate or indeterminate, whether legally obligatory or not. Hence, from strictly moral or ethical point of view, an individual can never be said to do more than his duty.
Duty comes to an individual with a claim; it is a thing laid upon an individual to do whether he likes it or not. A duty may thus be defined as the obligation of an individual to satisfy a claim made upon him by the community, or some other individual member or members of that community, in the name of common good.
If taken in a wide sense, the notion of duty is essentially implied in every system of morality and every ethical theory.
In Greek Ethics, moral life for the most part is presented as a good to be realised or a type of virtue or excellence to be attained. A man must be courageous, temperate and just, because in no other way can be achieved his good or true happiness. So long as the mode of presenting the moral life prevailed, the element of duty was completely absorbed into, and subordinated to, the thought of good or achievement.
The human rights with which morality is concerned, may be classified as following:-
The Physical Rights of an individual–rights to life and limb, to exemption from assault, to free movement are protected since olden days by the provision in law of an act of “habeas corpus”. But in morals it is of wider significance, forbidding us to do anything that risks accident to others, imposes cruelties, or prevents others from leading a wholesome life. Morality rebelled against slavery. It rebels against any industrial conditions wherein profit is made at the expense of human life or human safety. (From the moral viewpoint, the use of an industry is not profit, but service. Use is indeed above man, and if use calls for sacrifice even of life, it is noble to respond to that call. But profit is not a use in itself; wherefore the Writings call such business as is carried on merely for profit, “Jewish trading”.) The Writings clearly allow to the State a legitimate right to limit the individual’s right to protection, or physical life. Imprisonment and even the death-penalty are thus not condemned in the Doctrine.
The neighbor has also Mental Rights which must be considered. Excessive, gruelling, or debasing labor grinds down man’s character and produces a mental stagnation which negates his opportunities to develop in truly human directions. Utter idleness also tends to produce degeneration in the mind’s poise and power. Too great luxury and lack of responsibilities have similar effects. So far as it depends on us, we must therefore not encourage such conditions with those who come under our proper authority.
Children have a right to a proper education, for this looks to a future use intelligently performed. Denial of a right to some kind of education is thus in itself immoral. In the New Church, the right of the child to instruction in worship and doctrine is implied in the baptismal act.
Mental rights are largely associated with that freedom of thought and speech and press and religion and education, which is ever the bulwark of progress. Such liberty is also recognized as a guarantee against disorderly rebellions: for it shows that the ordering of the State is in the hands of those who can persuade acceptance of their ideas and support for their plans.
Virtues are the essence of our character and when we keep the practice of virtues at the heart of everyday life, we live with purpose. Virtue, by definition, is the moral excellence of a person. A morally excellent person has a character made-up of virtues valued as good.
Mazor Good Virtues are:-
Wisdom enables us to make reasoned decisions that are both good for us and good for others. Wisdom tells us how to put the other virtues into practice when to act, how to act, and how to balance different virtues when they conflict (as they do, for example, when telling the honest truth might hurt someone‟s feelings). Wisdom enables us to discern correctly, to see what is truly important in life, and to set priorities.
Justice means respecting the rights of all persons. Since we are persons ourselves, justice also includes self-respect, a proper regard for our own rights and dignity.
Fortitude enables us to do what is right in the face of difficulty. The right decision in life is often the hard one.
Self- control is the ability to govern ourselves. It enables us to control our temper, regulate our sensual appetites and passions, and pursue even legitimate pleasures in moderation. It‟s the power to resist temptation. It enables us to wait and to delay gratification in the service of higher and distant goals.
Love is the willingness to sacrifice for the sake of another. A whole cluster of important human virtues empathy, compassion, kindness, generosity, service, loyalty, patriotism (love of what is noble in one‟s country), and forgiveness make up the virtue of loveWBPCS Notes brings Prelims and Mains programs for WBPCS Prelims and WBPCS Mains Exam preparation. Various Programs initiated by WBPCS Notes are as follows:-
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