Meaning of Public Policy
- Are goal oriented
- Are outcome of the government’s collective actions
- It is what the government actually decided or chooses to do
- Is positive in the sense that it depicts the concern of the government and involves its action to a particular problem on which the policy is made
- Distinction between policy and goals; policy and decisions
Characteristics of public policy making
- Is a very complex process
- Dynamic process
- Comprises of various componenet
- Policy structure makes different contributions
- Decision making
- Lays down major guidelines
- Results in action
- Directed at the future
- Mainly formulated by governmental organs
- Aims at achieving what is in the public interest
- Use of best policy means
- Involvement of various bodies/agencies
Components of public policy
- PP is purposive and deliberately formulated. It must have a purpose or a goal
- Is well thought out and is not a series of discrete decisions
- PP is what is actually done and not what is intended or desired
- PP also delineates a time frame in which its goals have to be achieved
- Follows a defined course of action: formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation
Types of public policy
- Substantive: concerned with the general welfare and development of the society
- Regulatory: Concerned with regulation of trade, business, safety measures, public utilities etc
- Distributive: meant for specific segments of the society
- Capitalisation: financial subsidies given by the Union govt to the state and local govt
In a parliamentary democracy, the legislature or Parliament is the most appropriate site for policy making as well as the site for evaluation and monitoring for its implementation. Parliament of India exercise control over executive through its Committees. The most important Standing Committees of Parliament are those that exercise control over the finances: the Public Accounts Committee, the Committee on Estimate and the Committee on Public Undertaking.
Policy implementation is of critical importance to the success of Government. No policy can succeed if the implementation does not bear relationship to the intentions of policy adopters. Policy implementation is the process of putting policy into action. Implementation is the phase between a decision and operation. It seeks to determine whether an organization is able to carry out and achieve its stated objectives.
Communication is an essential ingredient for effective implementation of public policy. Through communication, orders to implement policies are expected to be transmitted to the appropriate personnel in a clear manner while such orders must be accurate and consistent. Inadequate information can lead to a misunderstanding on the part of the implementors who may be confused as to what exactly are required of them. In effect, implementation instructions that are not transmitted, that are distorted in transmission, that are vague, or that are inconsistent may cause serious obstacles to policy implementation.
The Indian judiciary is also regarded as an important agency in policy making process. Armed with the power to strike down executive, quasi-judicial and legislative actions as unconstitutional, the judiciary has, as the ultimate interpreter of Constitutional provisions , expounded the basic features of the Constitution of which the power of judicial review has been recognized as forming an integral part.
The judiciary can intervene in the administrative acts under the following circumstances:
• Lack of jurisdiction,
• Error of law,
• Error in fact finding,
• Abuse of authority,
• Error of procedure.