DMPQ- Amendment to the Indian constitution is mixed of flexibility and rigidity. Discuss the ways in which constitution can be amended.

Indian constitution is rightly said is a perfect blend of rigidity and flexibility as it cannot be amended by simple majority as in the case of Britain but similarly it is not that difficult as in the case of US Constitution.  There are three ways through which constitution can be amended:

  • By simple majority: Some of the provisions of the constitution can be amended by simple majority like changes in the salaries and allowance of executives as mentioned in second schedule, article 169 of the constitution like creation or abolition of Vidhan parishad, Bifurcation of states etc.
  • By special majority : Most of the provisions of the constitution are amended by using this majority which is 2/3rd of the present and voting and absolute majority. Both conditions are to be followed in this.
  • Third type of amendment is done by special majority mentioned in 2nd point and ratification of half of the states. The ratification is done by simple majority. This majority is used in the case of the matters affecting the federal structure of the country. Like election to President, Power of SC and HC, Amendment to 7th schedule etc.


The last two majority mentioned comes under article 368 of the constitution. The constitution amendment bill can be initiated in either house of the parliament so Lok sabha and Rajya sabha have equal powers

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