Modern Period

  Later Mughals
1707-12 Bahadur Shah I
1712-13 Jahandar Shah
1713-19 Farukk Siyar
1719-48 Muhammad Shah Rangila
1748-54 Ahmad Shah
1754-59 Alamgir II
1759-1806 Shah Alam II
1806-1837 Akbar Shah II
1837-57 Bahadur Shah II


  Later Mughal Rulers
Bahadur Shah I After the death of Aurangzeb, prince Muazzam, Azam & Kam Bakhsh fought in
1707-1712 which Mauzzam emerged victorious & assumed the title of Bahadur Shah I. Banda
  Bahadur who killed Wazir khanwas defeated by him. Was referred to as ‘Shah-i-
Jahandar Shah Later after Bahadur Shah’s death, his son Jahandar Shah came to power after killing
1712-13 his other brothers with the help of Zulfikar Khan. He made peace with the Jats,
  Shahuji & honoured rajput kings.
Farrukh Siyar Nephew  of  Jahandar  Shah,  Farrukh  Siyar  killed  him  with  the  help  of  Sayyid
1713-19 brothers – Abdulla Khan (Wazir) & Hussain Ali Khan (Mir Bakshi). Farrukh Siyar
  tried to check the powers of Sayyid brothers but the latter got him killed & crowned
  two princes Raffi-ud-Darajat, Raffi-ud-Daula in quick succession. Later they made
  Muhammad Shah (Grandson of Bahadur Shah I) as the king. After his accession the
  Sayyid brothers fell victim to the intrigue of Turani Amirs.
Muhammad During his tenure most the independent kingdoms were established: Nizam-ul-Mulk
Shah Rangila (Deccan),  Saadat  Khan  (Awadh)  &  Murshid  Quli  Khan  (Bengal).  Iranian  King
1719-48 Nadir Shah invaded in 1739 on invitation of Saadat Khan (Awadh). The latter was
  imprisoned by Nadir Shah for not able to pay the promised ransom. Nadir Shah
  took the peacock throne & the Kohinoor diamond with him.
Ahmad Shah Son of Muhammad Shah. During his reign Ahmad Shah Abdali (claimed himself
1748-54 ruler  of  Kandhar  after  the  assassination  of  Nadir  Shah  by  Persian  in  1747)
  repeatedly attacked. Later Ahmad Shah was killed & deposed by his own Wazir
Alamgir II Actual name Aziz-ud-din. Frequency of Abdali attacks increased. [1754-59]
Shah Alam II 1759-1806
Akbar Shah II 1806-1837
Bahadur Shah II 1837-57















          Other Contemporary States  
  Bihar   After Saadat Khan, *Safdarjung* became the king  who was an impartial ruler &  
        carried out many reforms & was made the wazir of mughal empire. Shuja-ud-Daula  
        succeded him to throne. He was also made the wazir of mughal empire but he sided  
        with Ahmad Shah Abdali in the Third Battle of Panipat.  
  Bengal   Murshid Quli Khan was an able ruler. Later his son in law Shuja-ud-din & his son  
        Sarfaraz came in that order. Sarfaraz was defeated by Alivardi Khan of Bihar. Later  
        Alivardi Khan was defeated by Raghuji Bhonsle & forced him to surrender Orissa.  
        After the death of Alivardi khan his grandson Siraj-ud-daula tool over who lost to  
        Britishers under Lord Clive.  
  Hyderabad   Nizam-ul-mulk Asaf Jah founded the state of Hyderabad in 1724.  
  Mysore &   Since the downfall of the Vijaynagar empire Wodeyar dynasty was ruling. But in  
  Haider Ali   the 18th century two minister Nanjaraj & Devaraj usurped power early reducing the  
        King Krishna Raj to a puppet. Haider Ali rose to become the Commander-in-Chief  
        of the Mysore army & became the sultan after Nanjraj’s death. He was defeated by  
        Peshwa Madhav Rao.  
  Tipu Sultan   He defeated the combined forces of Marathas & Nizam in 1787 & soon after  
        claimed himself Padshah at Seringapattam. He attempted to reduce the custom of  
        jagirs& hereditary possession of poligars (small chieftans). He was a staunch  
        muslim. He donated money to hindus but later got the temples abolished.  
  Travancore   Martanda Verma    
  Rajput States   Marwar (Ajit Singh), Amer (Sawai Jai Singh)  
  Rohilkhand   Area between Agra & Awadh. Muhammad Khan Bangash ruled who was defeated  
        by Maharana Chhatrasal of Bundelkhand with the help of Marathas.  
  Sikhs   Ruler of one of the 12 Misls called Sukarchakiya. He with the help of his brave  
        commander Hari Singh Nalwa won Multan, Kashmir & Peshawar.  
          The Peshwas  
  1713-20   Balaji Vishwanath Shahu appointed him as the Peshwa.  
  1720-40   Baji Rao I Baji Rao I succeded who was the most charismatic leader in  
          Maratha history after Shivaji.He conquered Malwa, Bundelkhand  
          & even raided Delhi.  
  1740-61   Balaji Baji Rao Son of Baji Rao I  Balaji Baji Rao (Nana Saheb – different from  
          the later Nana Saheb, adopted son of Baji Rao II) who defeated  
          the Nizam of Hyderabad. The Maratha however received a  
          terrible blow at the hands of Ahmad Shah Abdali in 1761-Panipat  
  1761-72   Madhav Rao I Defeated Nizam, Mysore, Rohillas, Rajputs Jats. In 1771 he  
          confined the Mughal emperor Shah Alam II  by giving pension.  
  1772-73   Narayan Rao Short tenure. Tussle with Ragunath Rao over Peshwa claim.  
  1774-95   Madhav Rao II Became Peshwa after treaty of Salbai supported by Nana  
          Phadnavis.  In the meantime Mahadji Scindia who had brought  
          Shah Alam under his control became the actual ruler of Delhi till  
          his death in 1794.  
  1796-1818   Baji Rao II Incompetent son of Raghunath Rao (who was had earlier stuggled  
          with Narayan Rao to become Peshwa & sided with Britishers)  








  Important Battles
1744-48 First Anglo-French Carnatic war. Madras returned to British by the treaty of Aix-la-
  Chappalle. In battle of St. Thome, a small French Army defeated Nawab Anwar-ud-
  din’s large one.
1748-54 Second Anglo French Carnatic war. The French sided with Muzaffar Jang (grandson of
  Asaf Jah) & Chanda Sahib (in Carnatic) while the Enlish supported the claims of Nasir
  Jang (son of late Nizam, Asaf Jah) & Anwar-ud-din (Carnatic) Initially the French
  under Dupleix had success (& stationed officer Bussy at Hyderabad) but later the
  English got hold. Treaty of Pondicherry signed.
1757-63 Third Anglo French Carnatic war. French captured Fort St. David. Lally did the
  mistake of recalling Bussy from Hyderabad. Later the French were badly routed at
  Wandiwash by the British under Sir Eyre Coote.
1757 Battle of Plassey. British under clive & treacher Mir Jaffar routed Siraj-ud-daula. Mir
  Jafar was made Bengal but later replaced by his son-in-law Mir Kasim. He revolted &
  was again replaced by Mir Jafar.
1760 Battle of Wandiwash. French decisively defeated
1761 Third Battle of Panipat. Marathas defeated by Ahmad Shah Abdali
1764 Battle of Buxar. Mir Kasim, Shuja-ud-daula & Shah Alam II defeated by Major Munro.
  Treaty of Allahabad signed which gave the diwani of Bengal, Bihar, Orissa & Bihar to
  the Enlish & trading rights in Awadh. Shah Alam on pension of 26 laksh/annum.
1767-69 I Anglo Mysore war. Both the British & Haider Ali returned each others territories The
  britisheres committed to help Haider against a third party invasion
1775-82 First Anglo Maratha war. The British army was defeated. The humiliating convention
  of Wadgaon was concluded in which the company was required to give up all the
  advantages of Treaty of Purandhar. Peace was at last restored by treaty of Salbai signed
  between Warren Hastings & Mahdji Scindia whereby salsette & Bassein were given to
  the British.
1780-84 II Anglo Mysore War. In 1782 Haider Ali passed away due to illness leaving the
  struggle to Tipu. War concluded by treaty of Mangalore
1790-92 III Anglo Mysore war. Tipu signed the treaty of Seringapattam
1799 IV Anglo Mysore war. When the subsidiary alliance was offered to Tipu Sultan he
  flatly refused & hence the war happened in which the Marathas & the Nizam helped the
  Britishers. Tipu died fighting the war.
1803-1805 Second Anglo Maratha war. Marathas defeated.
1814-16 Anglo Nepal war. War came to an end by treaty of Sagauli
1817-19 Third Anglo Maratha war. Marathas decisively defeated
1823-26 First Anglo Burmese war. Buremese defeated & conducted Treaty of Yandahboo
1839-42 First Anglo Afghan war. The Britishers were defeated.
1845-46 First Anglo-Sikh war. Sikhs defeated & Treaty of Lahore conducted
1848-49 Second Anglo Sikh war. Sikhs defeated & Punjab annexed to British. Maharaja Dalip
  Singh given an annual pension of 50,000 pounds & sent to England for higher studies
  & later converted to Christianity. The Kohinoor was gifted to Queen Victoria.
1852 Second Anglo Burmese war. English successful
1878-80 Second Anglo Afghan war. English suffered losses.
1885-87 Third Anglo Burmese war. English annexed Burma
1919-21 Third Anglo Afghan war. English though victorious did not benefit from the war.






          Important Treaties      
  Treaty of Pondicherry     After the II Carnatic war. Muhammad Ali, son of late Anwar-ud-din was
          accepted as the Nawab of Carnatic.      
  Treaty of Mangalore     Signed between Tipu & British in 1784. Under this Tipu withdrew his army
1784     from Carnatic & English withdrew theirs from the Carnatic.
  Treaty of Seringapattam     After III Anglo Mysore war. Tipu had to pay heavy war indemnity & send as
1792     hostages his two sons to the English. Half of his territory was ceded. He paid
          the war indemnity & his two sons were released.      
  Treaty of Amritsar 1809   Signed between British & Ranjit Singh in which the latter recognized their
          rights in the Cis-Sutlej areas.      
  Treaty of Sagauli     After Anglo Nepalese war. The Gurkhas gave up their claim over the Tarai
          region& ceded claim over the areas of Kumaon & Garhwal to the British.
  Treaty of Lahore     After the first Anglo Sikh war. The territories lying to the south of river
          Sutlej  were given to the company.      
          Land Settlements      
  Zamindari System (19%) Bengal, Bihar, Banaras, division of NW provinces & northern Carnatic.  
          90 % of the revenue went to government & 10 % to Zamindar (British)  
  Mahalwari System (30%) Major parts of NW provinces, Central provinces & Punjab. Responsibility  
          of paying revenue was with the entire village or mahal. (Based on  
          traditional Indian system of economic community)  
  Ryotwari system (51%)     Bombay & Madras presidencies, Assam, Berar & certain other parts. Land  
          revenue was fixed for 20-40 years at a time (French in Origin)  
          Books/Articles & Authors (Modern)      
    Ghulamgiri (challenged superiority of Brahmins)   Jyotiba Phule  
    Tuhfat-ul-Muwahhidin (Gift to Monotheists in Persian)   Raja Rammohun Roy  
    Dharma Tritiya Ratna, Ishvara & Life of Shivaji   Jyotiba Phule  
    New Lamp for the Old (Series of Articles criticizing Congress)   Aurobindo Ghosh  
    Doctrine of Passive Resistance (Articles in Bande Mataram)   Aurobindo Ghosh  
    Indian War of Independence (seized by British)   V.D. Savarkar  
    Loyal Muhammadans of India   Sayyid Ahmad Khan  
    Tahaib-al-Akhlaq         Sayyid Ahmad Khan  
    Asbab-e-Bagawar-e-Hind (Held Bahadur Shah II as fool for revolting)   Sayyed Ahmad Khan  
    Neel Darpan         Dinbandhu Mitra  
    How did America get Freedom   Ram Prasad Bismil  
    The activities of Bolsheviks, The wave of the Mind, Colour of Swadeshi,   Ram Prasad Bismil  
    Revolutionary Life              
    Systematic History of Ancient India   V.A. Smith  
    Hindu Polity         K.P. Jayaswal  
    Political History of Ancient India   H.C. Raychaudhary  
    A History of Ancient India; A history of South India   K.A. Nilkant Shastri  
    Hindu Civilization; Chandragupta Maurya; Asoka;   R.K. Mookerji  
    Fundamental Unity of India        
    History of Dharmashastra   P.V. Kane  
    The Wonder That was India   A.L. Basham  
      Socio-Religious Reformers & their Organizations      




Atmiya Sabha (1815) Raja Rammohun Roy
Brahmo Samaj (1828) Raja Rammohun Roy.
Tattvabodhini Sabha (1839). Later merged with Mahrishi Devendranath Tagore.
Brahmo Samaj in 1842  
Indian national Social Conference M.G. Ranade
Harijan Sevak Sangh Mahatma Gandhi
Satya Shodhak Samaj (1873) Jyotirao Phule (fight caste oppression)
Shri Narayana Dharma Partiplana Yogama Shri Narayan Guru (fight caste oppression)
South Indian Liberal Federation (later became T. Teagaraja & T.M. Nair (Self respect)
justice party & then Dravida Kazhagam)  
Prarthana Samaj (1867) Atma Ram Pandurang
Arya Samaj (1875) Swami Dayanand
Servants of India Society (1905) Gopal Krishna Gokhale (Rejected Knighthood)
Hindu Dharma Sangrakshini Sabha (1893 at Chapekar Brothers – Damodar & Balakrishna.
Abhinav Bharat V.D. Savarkar
New India Association V.D. Savarkar
Anushilan Samiti Aurobindo Ghose, Barindra Kumar Ghose, B.P.
  Mitra, Abinash Bhattacharya & Bhupendra Dutta
Patriotic Association Sayyid Ahmad Khan
Muhammad Anglo-Oriental Defence Association Sayyid Ahmad Khan
Bahiskrit Hitkarni Sabha (1924) B.R. Ambedkar
Akhil Bharatiya Dalit Varg Sabha B.R. Ambedkar


Aligarh Movement Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan
Deoband Represented  by  Mohammad  Qasim  Nanautavi  &  Rashid  Ahmad  Gangohi.
Movement Nanautavi founded the ‘Dar-ul-Ullema’ madrasa at Deoband. This movement was
  strictly  based  on  Islamic  tradition unlike liberal  Aligarh movement.   The  also
  promulgated a fatwa against Sayyid Ahmad’s associations. In 1919, Mufti Liyaqat
  Ullah  Sahib  founded  the,  ‘Jamaitul  Ulema-i-Hind’  to  further  work  in  this
  direction. His role was prominent in the Khilafat movement.
Muslim League Nawab Wakar-ul-Mulk presided over a gathering at the invitation of Nawab Salim
  Ullah of Dacca. Muslim league was the result. The constitution of the league was
  prepared in 1907 at Karachi. The first session of the league was held in 1908 at
  Amritsar. The same year Aga Khan became the president. The league supported
  partition of Bengal & was a loyalist organization. After 1913 Aga Khan left the
  league which led to the emergence of new leaders like Muhammad Ali, Shaukat
  Ali & M.A. Ansari.
Home Rule League Estd by Annie Besant at Madras in September 1916. She was the president &
  other   members   included   Arundale,   P.C.   Ramaswamy   Iyer,   V.P.   Wadia.
  Balgangadhar Tilak had estd another Home Rule League in April 1916 at Pune.
Champaran European  planters  forced  the  farmers  to  cultivate  Indigo  on  atleast  3/20
Satyagraha 1917 (Tinkathiya) parts of their land. Rajendra Prasad, Mazhur-ul-Haq, J.B. Kriplani,
  Mahadev Desai accompanied him. An enquiry was set up to alleviate miseries of
  which even Gandhi was a member.
Kheda Satyagraha Kheda peasants refused to pay revenue due to failure of crops. After Satyagraha





1918 the government issued instructions to collect revenue only from those who could
  afford to pay. Indulal Yagnik & Vallabh Bhai Patel supported Gandhi.
Ahmedabad Mill Mahatma Gandhi considered 35 % increase in salary as just. He undertook a fast
Problem 1918 unto death & the strike came to an end. Ambalal Sarabhai’s sister Anasuya Behn
  was main lieutenant of Gandhi here.
Rowlatt Act In March 1919, the Britishers passed the Rowlatt Act according to which any
  Indian could be arrested on the basis of suspicion. A nationwide satyagraha was
  organized which involved arrest of Mahatma Gandhi, Dr Satyapal, Dr. Saiffuddin
  Kitchlew & Arya Samaj leader Swami Shradhananda (shoot if you can rally).
Jallianwala Bagh Demanded  to  know  the  whereabouts  of  Satyapal  and  Kitchlew  throught  the
Massacre reciting of  the poem ‘Fariyad’ on the day of Baisakhi (13th  April, 1919). Martial
  law was proclaimed later at Lahore, Gujarat & Layal with curfew at Amritsar. An
  enquiry was setup under Hunter. Rabindranath Tagore renounced his title.
Khilafat Movement Sultan of Turkey was the Caliph. The allied powers were arrayed against Turkey.
  Mulana Abul Kalam Azad, M.A. Ansari, Saiffudin Kitchlew, Maulvi Abdulbari,
  Hakim Ajmal Khan & the Ali brothers were prominent leaders. British signed the
  Treaty of Tibers, partitioned Turkey & its Sultan was made a prisoner & sent to
Non Cooperation Approval at Congress session in 1920. Leaders like Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Annie
1920-22 Besant & Bipin Chandra Pal not in agreement & left the congress. Students took
  their names off school. Kashi Vidyapeeth, Bihar Vidyapeeth, Jamia Milia Islamia
  were set up. No Congress leader contested for elections. Mass demonstrations
  before  Duke  of  Connaught  &  Prince  of  wales.  Tilak  Swarajya  Fund  was
  established. Moplah rebellion was the ugly face. Chauri Chaura in Gorakhpur, UP
  incidence led to its recall. Congress leaders like Motilal Nehru, Chittaranjan Das
  formed as separate group within the congress known as Swarajya Party with a
  purpose not to let the movement lapse.
AITUC Formed  in  1920  with  Lotvala’s  help.  M.N  Roy,  Muzzafarabad  Ahmad,  S.  A
1920 Dange  &  Shaukat  Osmani  led  the  trade  unionist  movements.  The  Britishers
  leveled the kanpur/Meerut conspiracy against them.
Swaraj Party Suspension   of   Non   Cooperation   movement   disoriented   the   leadership.
  Chittaranjan Das & Motilal Nehru were called ‘Pro-Changers’ & did not support
  the non cooperation movement. The other group was ‘no-changers’ & included C.
  Rajgopalachari, M.A. Ansari. In 1923 Das & Nehru formed the Swaraj Party at
  Allahabad with a view to take part in the 1923 Council elections. The swaraj party
  got  clear  majority  in  the  Central  legislature  &  Provincial  legislatures  except
  Bengal. After the passing away of Chittaranjan Das in 1925 the party weakened &
  further some of the leaders became corrupt. Therefore in the election of 1926 it
  suffered miserable defeat in all the provinces except Madras.
Hindustan Established in October 1924 in Kanpur by revolutionaries like Ramprasad Bismil,
Republic Jogesh Chatterjee, Chandrashekhar Azad and Sachindranath Sanyal. The Kakori
Associaiton 1924 Train Action was a notable act of terrorism by this group but trial prooved to be a
  major  setback.However,  the  group  was  reorganized  under  the  leadership  of
  Chandrashekhar Azad and with members like Bhagat Singh, Bhagwati Charan
  Vohra  and  Sukhdev  on  9  and  10  September  1928-  and  the  group  was  now
  christened Hindustan Socialist  Republican  Association (HSRA).  Bhagat  Singh,
  Sukhdev and Rajguru were hanged in March 1931.
Communist Party Was declared illegal in 1934. This ban continued till 1942 when there was an




of India 1925 agreement that the communist will support British in the war effort & sabotage the
  quit India movement. In a memorandum to the Cabinet Mission in 1946, they put
  forward a plan for the division of India into 17 sovereign states.
Bardoli Satyagraha In Bardoli district of Surat under Vallabh Bhai Patel. The government had raised
  the tax rate by 30% despite famine.
All India States Formed  in  1926  whose  first  session  was  held  under  the  presidentship  of  the
People Conference famous leader of Ellore, Diwan Bahadur M. Ramachandra Rai.
Simon The purpose was the review the Act of 1919 after a gap of ten years. The 7
Commission member commission was labeled ‘White Men Commission’. Huge demonstration
  under Govind Vallabh Pant at Lucknow & Lala Lajpat at Lahore. The report of
  Simon  Commission  was  published  in  May  1930.  It   stated  the  constitutional
  experiment  with  Dyarchy  was  unsuccessful  &  in  its  place  recommended  the
  establishment  of  autonomous  government.  It  recommended  special  powers  to
  governor  general  &  governors  to  look  after  the  interest  of  minorities,
  strengthening  the  centre,  increasing  electorate  base  on  communal  basis,
  Indianization of defence forces, delink Burma from India & Sindh from Bombay.
  The Indians rejected the report as it gave no regard to Dominion Status. It became
  a basis for the Govt of India Act 1935.
Nehru Report, Secretary  of  State,  Lord  Birkenhead  challenged  the  Indians  to  produce  a
1928 constitution that would be acceptable to all. A meeting held at Bombay set up a 8
  member committee headed by Motilal Nehru & others included Bose, Tej Bahadur
  Sapru, Sir Ali Imam, Shahib Qureshi, Sardar Mangal Singh, MS Anney & G.R
  Pradhan.  The  report  was  placed  before  Congress  Session  in  Calcutta  in  1928
  where it was adopted unanimously. It recommended reservation for minorities
  instead of separate electorates. Jinnah & President of Central Sikh league, Sardar
  Kharak  Singh  rejected  it.  Later  Jinnah  convened  an  All  India  Conference  of
  Muslims & drew up a list of 14 point. Jawahar & Bose were not happy with the
  dominion status.
Dandi March Reached Dandi after marching with 78 handpicked followers & formally launched
April 1930 the Civil Disobedience Movement by breaking the Salt laws. Many muslims kept
  themselves  aloof  but  in  the  NWFP  an  organization  of  Khudai  Khidmatgar
  (Servants of Gods – Red Shirts) under Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan (Frontier Gandhi)
  participated in full.
I Round table Held under the Chairmanship of Ramsay MacDonald. Failed to resolve any issues
Conference as it was opposed by congress.
Nov 1930  
Gandhi Irwin Pact As  per  it  Gandhi  agreed  to  suspend  the  Civil  Disobedience  Movement  &
March 1931 participate in the Second Round Table conference but most of the leaders did not
  like this pact.
II Round Table At London. Mahatma Gandhi returned to India as no agreement could be reached.
Conference 1931 In January 1932 the civil disobedience movement was resumed.
McDonald The British PM Ramsay MacDonald made an announcement according to which
Communal Award the depressed classes were considered as separate community. Mahatma Gandhi
1932 went on a fast unto death in Yeravada Jail. An agreement was reached with the
  consent of Mahatma Gandhi & Ambedkar which came to be known as ‘Poona
  Act’.  The  British  government  also  approved  it.  Accordingly  148  seats  were
  reserved in different provincial legislatures in place of 71 as per communal award.
III Round Table The  congress  once  more  didn’t  take  part  in  it.  None  the  less  the  British




Conference 1932 Government issued a white paper which became basis for Govt of India Act 1935.
  Individual Civil Disobedience was launched in 1933
Congress Socialist founded  in  1934  by  Jai  Praksh  Narain  &  Acharya  Narendra  Deva  within  the
Party 1934 Indian National Congress. Its members rejected what they saw as the Communist
  Party of India’s loyalty to the USSR as well as the anti-rational mysticism of
  Mohandas Gandhi. Although a socialist, Jawaharlal Nehru did not join the CSP.
  After independence, the CSP broke away from Congress, under the influence of JP
  Narayan and Basawon Singh (Sinha), to form the Socialist Party of India.
August Offer 1940 Envisaged that after the war a representative body of Indians would be set up to
  frame the new constitution.
Individual Started in October 1940. In it Vinoba Bhave, Jawahar Nehru & Brahma Dutt were
Satyagraha 1940 the first 3 satyagrahis.
Cripps Mission Viceroy  Lord  Linlithgow  expanded  is  Executive  council  by  taking  five  more
1942 Indians into it. The Indians were dissatisfied as it did not like the rights of the
  princely states to join or stay out of the Indian constitution. The demand for Pak
  also not considered leading to Muslim league rejecting the plan.
Quit India The fear of an impending Japanese invasion Gandhi launched this campaign. In
Movement the midst the government arrested all Indian leaders – Gandhi at Poona, others at
1942-44 Ahmadnagar fort. Rajendra Prasad was interned in Patna. The Congress Socialist
  Party  whith  its  leaders  like  Ram  Manohar  Lohia,  Achyuta  Patwardhan  played
  important role. Communist Party remained loyal to the British. The Muslims by &
  large remained indifferent.
INA Captain Mohan Singh founded it in 1942. In 1943 he reached Singapore & gave a
  the cry of ‘Dilli Chalo’. He was made the president of the Indian Independence
  League.  The  name  of  the  brigades  were  Subhash,  Gandhi,  Nehru  &  Rani
  Lakshmibai. In Nov 1943, Japan handed over Andamans & Nicobar Islands to
  him. He named  them Shaheed Island & Swaraj Island respectively. The army
  marched towards imphal after registering victory over Kohima. But later Japan
  accepted defeat & Subhas died in a plain crash after crossing Formosa Island.
C.R. Formula 1944 To resolve the constitutional impasse Rajagopalachari evolved a formula in March
  1944. But it was rejected by Jinnah who would not settle without Pakistan.
Wavell Plan & The main provisions were akin to Cripps mission proposals. It essentially dealt
Shimla Conference with  the  Indian  demand  of  self-rule  &  reconstitution  of  viceroy’s  executive
1945 council  giving  a  balanced  representation  to  the  major  communities.  Executive
  council  was  an  interim  arrangement  in  which  all  but  the  Viceory  &  the
  Commander in Chief were to be Indians & all portfolios except defence were to be
  held by Indian members. Conference broke down because of Jinnah’s insistence
  that Muslim league alone represented Indian Muslims & hence no non league
  muslim members could be nominated to viceroy’s council.
Cabinet Mission Pathick Lawrence (secretary of state for India), Stafford Cripps & A.B. Alexander.
1946 Jinnah stuck his demand for Pakistan. It proposed the formation of Union of India
  comprising  both  British  India  &  princely  states  (only  foreign,  defence  &
  communication).  A  constitutional  assembly  was  to  be  formed  consisting  of
  representatives of Provincial assemblies & princely states, elected on communal
  basis in proportion to the population of each province. Envisaged interim govt &
  said that until the constitution is framed & the govt estd British forces will not
  withdraw. The Congress & Muslim league accepted it in June 1946.
Elections Following cabinet mission elections were held. Congress secured 205 out of 214




    general seats & had support of 4 sikh members. The Muslim league got 73 out of
    78  Muslim  seats.  Jinnah  became  greatly  disturbed  by  the  election  results.  He
    demanded separate constituent assembly & started instigating violent action. Later
    16  August  1946  was  fixed  as  direct  action  day to withdraw its  acceptance  of
    cabinet  mission  plan.  Communal  riots  broke  out  in  Bengal,  United  Province,
    Punjab, Sindh & NWFP. Interim government was formed with Jawahar Nehru as
    head& 14 members – 6 congress, 5 League, one each Christian, Sikh & Parsi.
    However Muslim league kept out of the Interim government.
INA Trails Held at Red Fort in Delhi. Nehru, Bhulabhai Desai, Tejbahadur Sapru fought the
    case on behalf of three senior INA officers, Shahnawaz khan, P.M. Sehgal & G.S.
    Gurudayal Dhillon led to their acquittal.
RIN Mutiny 1946 Indians serving in the Royal Indian Navy mutined. Around 5000 naval ratings put
    up INA badges.
Mountbatten Plan Mountbatten came to India as Viceroy. He put forth the plan of partition of India
    in 3 June 1947. Punjab & Bengla would be divided into two parts with muslim &
    non muslim majority. Baluchistan had the right to determine which side to join.
    The power would be transferred on 15 August 1947. Referendum were to be held
    in NWFP, Sylhet (to join Assam or East Bengal). Legislative assembly of Sindh
    was to decide whether to join India or not.
Indian Independece The British Parliament passed the Indian Independence act on 18th    July 1947.
Act 1947 Partition on 15th  August. The act provided separate governor generals for the two
    dominions.  Abolition  of  the  post  of  secretary  of  state  for  India.   Pending  the
    adoption  of  new  constitution,  the  administration  of  the  two  dominions  &  the
    provinces  would  be  carried  on  in  accordance  with  the  provisions  of  the
    government of India act 1935 though special powers of the Governor General &
    the  Provincial  governors  would  be  ceased.  Jinnah  became  the  first  governor
    general of Pakistan.
Unification Drive On 5th July 1947, Vallabhbhai Patel appealed to the Indian provinces to handover.
    He followed up his appeal with a hurricane tour of 40 days in which he invited all
    the native princes to join the Indian union by 5th  August. In Kashmir Hari Singh
    sent  his  PM  Meharchand  Mahajan  with  the  signed  papers  for  the  merger.  In
    Hyderabad  the  nawab  wanted  to  continue  his  arbitary  rule  with  the  help  of
    Rajakars. Finally after military action, Rajakars were expelled & the instrument of
    accession signed.
Pondicherry & Goa The  other  French  territories  were  Karaikal,  Mahe,Yanam  &  Chandernagore.
    Chandernagore had acceded to India on the basis of a plebiscite. In 1954 all the
    French possession in India were formally handed over to India though the legal
    transfer took place in 1962. Operation ‘Vijay’ was carried out for the liberation of
    Goa when satyagraha failed in 1961. It became a state in 1987.
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