Wild life and Ecotourism of Rajasthan
Rajasthan is a state of the royals and it has numerous evidence of the royal culture in its rich heritage and society. Along with its cultural abundance, Rajasthan also has enough of wildlife beauty in it. Some famous wildlife sanctuaries & national parks in Rajasthan are Ranthambore National Park, Sariska Tiger Reserve, Keoladeo Ghana National Park in Bharatpur, Kumbhalgarh Sanctuary, Sitamata Sanctuary, Tal Chappar Wildlife Sanctuary, Gajner Sanctuary, Mount Abu Sanctuary, Desert National Sanctuary, Darrah Sanctuary and Sajjangarh Wildlife Sanctuary. Major national parks and bird sanctuary are Ranthambore national park, Sariska tiger reserve, and Bharatpur bird sanctuary.
Sanctuary is an area which is of adequate ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphological, natural or zoological significance. The Sanctuary is declared for the purpose of protecting, propagating or developing wildlife or its environment. Certain rights of people living inside the Sanctuary could be permitted.
A sanctuary is a protected area which is reserved for the conservation of only animal and human activities like harvesting of timber, collecting minor forest products and private ownership rights are allowed as long as they do not interfere with well-being of animals.
National park is an area which is strictly reserved for the betterment of the wildlife & biodiversity, and where activities like developmental, forestry, poaching, hunting and grazing on cultivation are not permitted. In these parks, even private ownership rights are not allowed. Their boundaries are well marked and circumscribed. They are usually small reserves spreading in an area of 100 sq. km. to 500 sq. km. In national parks, the emphasis is on the preservation of a single floral or faunal species.
|S. No.||Name of National Park||Year of Notification||Total Area (Km2)|
|1||Mukundra Hills (Darrah) National Park||2006||200.54|
|2||Desert National Park||1992||3162|
|3||Keoladeo Ghana National Park||1981||28.73|
|4||Ranthambhore National Park||1980||282|
Mukundra Hills (Darrah) National Park
Mukundra Hills National Park is also known as Darrah wildlife Sanctuary. Darrah wildlife Sanctuary is located in Rajasthan. The sanctuary is located to the southeastern border of the town Kota.
Darrah was declared a (Protected area) wildlife sanctuary in 1955, and visitors now require to seek permission from the local forest ranger to visit the park. The total area of the sanctuary is about 250 km2.
The Darrah wildlife sanctuary was declared as a National park (Mukundra Hills (Darrah) National Park) in 2004. Total area of the National park is about 200 km2. Mukundra Hills (Darrah) National Park is a combination of three wildlife sanctuaries namely Darrah wildlife sanctuary, Chambal wildlife sanctuary and Jaswant Sagar wildlife sanctuary.
The park got the nod from National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) in 2013 and the state (Rajasthan) bagged its third tiger reserve in the form of the Mukundra Hills Tiger Reserve. But now perhaps it is the one of its kind without a tiger in it.
The name Darrah is taken as the ‘pass’ in the local language revealing the purpose that the region served earlier. The Marathas, Rajput’s and the British utilized the opportune position of the forest to seek asylum during war.
Desert National Park
Desert National Park is a beautiful place, located in the Jaisalmer district of the state of Rajasthan. Desert National Park is one of the largest national parks in India. The Desert National Park is also a protected sanctuary.
The Desert protected sanctuary was declared as a National park in 1980. Total area of the National park is about 3162 km2. The desert is a harsh place to sustain life and thus most of the fauna and flora live on the edge.
The great Indian Bustard is a magnificent bird and can be seen in considerably good numbers in this park. It migrates locally in different seasons.
Desert National park harbours a wide array of flora and faunal species. It is only place where Rajasthan State Bird (Great Indian Bustard), State animal (Camel) and State tree (Khejri) and State flower (Rohida) are found naturally.
Keoladeo Ghana National Park
Keoladeo Ghana National Park is also known as Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary or Keoladeo Ghana Bird Sanctuary. Keoladeo Ghana National Park is located in the Bharatpur district of the state of Rajasthan.
Keoladeo Ghana National Park famous for housing of birds, and was created around 250 years ago. The name Keoladeo has been derived from a nearby ancient Hindu temple, devoted to Lord Shiva (Maharaja Suraj Mal).
Keoladeo Ghana National Park also famous migrant species of birds, including the Common, Demoiselle and the rare Siberian Cranes.
Keoladeo was (bird sanctuary in 1956, unofficially) declared a bird sanctuary in 1971. The Keoladeo bird sanctuary was declared as a National park in 1981. Total area of the National park is about 28.7 km2.
Keoladeo Ghana National Park was announced as a Ramsar site under the Wetland Convention in October 1981.
Keoladeo was designated a World Heritage Site under the world Heritage Convention in 1985 by UNESCO. It is a reserve forest under the Rajasthan Forest Act, 1953 and therefore, is the property of the State of Rajasthan of the Indian Union.
Ranthambore National Park
Ranthambore is a beautiful place, located in the Sawai Madhopur district of the state of Rajasthan. Ranthambore National Park is one of the largest national parks in northern India.
Ranthambore was (Sawai Madhopur Game Sanctuary in 1955) declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1957, and came under the “Project Tiger“ as a Tiger reserves in 1973-74. The total area of the sanctuary is about 400 km2.
The Ranthambore tiger reserve was declared as a National park in 1981. Total area of the National park is about 282 km2.
Ranthambore National Park is famous for its tigers and is one of the best places in the country to see these majestic tigers.
Ranthambore National Park is set between the Aravalli and Vindhya ranges. Located at the junction of the Aravalli and Vindhya hill range.
Sariska National Park
Sariska is a beautiful place, located in the Alwar district of the state of Rajasthan. The area of Sariska, being a part of the Aravalli Range. Sariska was declared a wildlife reserve in 1955. The reserve was declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1958 and came under the “Project Tiger” as a Sariska tiger reserve in 1979. The total area of the sanctuary is about 800 km2.
The Sariska tiger reserve was declared as a National park in 1982. Total area of the National park is about 273.8 km2.
The landscape of Sariska comprises of hills and narrow valleys of the Aravalli hill range.
Supreme Court of India ban on mining in the area of Sariska National park, in 1991. Sariska is the first tiger reserve in the world to have successfully relocated tigers.
List of Wildlife sanctuaries in Rajasthan
Name of Wildlife Sanctuary (WLS)
|Established Year||Area (In km²)|
|1||Bandh Baratha WLS||1985||199.5|
|6||Jamwa Ramgarh WLS||1982||300|
|7||Jawahar Sagar WLS||1975||153.41|
|11||Mount Abu WLS||1960||112.98|
|13||National Chambal WLS||1979||274.75|
|14||Phulwari Ki Nal WLS||1983||692.68|
|15||Ramgarh Vishdhari WLS||1982||252.79|
|20||Sawai Man Singh WLS||1984||103.25|
|23||Tal Chhapper WLS||1971||7.19|
|24||Todgarh Raoli WLS||1983||495.27|
|25||Van Vihar WLS||1955||25.6|