Modern Period

  Later Mughals 1707-12 Bahadur Shah I 1712-13 Jahandar Shah 1713-19 Farukk Siyar 1719-48 Muhammad Shah Rangila 1748-54 Ahmad Shah 1754-59 Alamgir II 1759-1806 Shah Alam II 1806-1837 Akbar Shah II 1837-57 Bahadur Shah II     Later Mughal Rulers Bahadur Shah I After the death of Aurangzeb, prince Muazzam, Azam & Kam Bakhsh fought … Read more

Ancient Indian History(Quick Revision)

    Pre-Harappan Period     Lower Paleolithic   Hand axe & cleaver industries Pahalgam, Belan valley (U.P),       (600,000 – 60,000 BC)     Bhimbetka, Adamgarh, 16 R Singi Talav       Middle Paleolithic   Tools made on flakes Bhimbetka, Nevasa, Pushkar, Rohiri       (150,000 – 40,000 BC)   … Read more

Indian Religious Books

  Puranas Divided into sarga, pratisarga, manvantantar, vamsa (genealogical list of kings) & vamsanucharita. 18 main puranas & 18 subsidiary puranas. Vedas Meaning “knowledge”. Rigveda (hymns), Yajurveda (sacrificial formulae), Atharvaveda (magical charms & spell), Samveda. Vedas are called aparusheya (not created by man) & nity Upanishads About 200 in number. Deal with philosophy. Oldest & … Read more

Features, Amendments and Significant provisions of Indian Constitution

Amendments Amendments to the Constitution are made by the Parliament, the procedure for which is laid out in Article 368. An amendment bill must be passed by both the Houses of the Parliament by a two-thirds majority and voting. In addition to this, certain amendments which pertain to the federal nature of the Constitution must … Read more

Indian Constitution : historical underpinnings

Constitution Constitution is the fundamental law of a country which ordains the fundamental principles on which the government (or the governance) of that country is based. It lays down the framework and principal functions of various organs of the government as well as the modalities of interaction between the government and its citizens. With the … Read more

Fundamental Rights

Fundamental Rights Discrimination not on grounds only of Art 15: religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth Art 16: religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth, residence Reservation First Backward Classes Commission: 1953, Kaka Kalelkar Second BCC: 1979, B P Mandal (by Morarji Desai govt) Article 340 Reasonable Restrictions Speech and Expression: sovereignty and … Read more

Constitutional Development & Indian Constitution

Making of the constitution 1934: Idea of constituent assembly put forward by M N Roy 1935: INC officially demands constituent assembly 1938: JL Nehru’s declaration on the constitution of India 1940: Nehru’s demand accepted in the form of August Offer August Offer PM: Winston Churchill While rejecting INCs demand for independence of India after the … Read more

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