The Indian National Army or Azad Hind Fauj

  ? was an armed force formed by Indian nationalists in 1942 in Southeast Asia during World War II. The aim of the army was to liberate India from the British occupation with Japanese assistance. Initially composed of Indian prisoners of war captured by Japan in the Malayan campaign and at Singapore, it later drew … Read more

Basic Structure-For RAS RTS Mains and Ras RTS Prelims Examination

Basic Structure The basic structure doctrine is an Indian judicial principle that the Constitution of India has certain basic features that cannot be altered or destroyed through amendments by the parliament. Key among these “basic features”, are the fundamental rights granted to individuals by the constitution. The doctrine thus forms the basis of a limited … Read more

Indian Constitution : historical underpinnings:-For RAS RTS Mains and Ras RTS Prelims Examination

Constitution Constitution is the fundamental law of a country which ordains the fundamental principles on which the government (or the governance) of that country is based. It lays down the framework and principal functions of various organs of the government as well as the modalities of interaction between the government and its citizens. With the … Read more

French Revolution:- For Ras Rts Mains exam and Ras RTS Prelims Exam

It gave birth to ideas of liberty, freedom and equality It led to the end of monarchy in France A society based on privileges gave way to a new system of governance The Declarations of the Rights of Man during the revolution, announced the coming of a new time. The idea that all individuals had … Read more

American War of Independence.-For Ras RTS Mains and Ras Rts Prelims Examination

Philosophes such as Voltaire considered England’s government the most progressive in Europe. England’s ruler was no despot, not even an enlightened one. His power had been limited by law. The Glorious Revolution of 1688 had given England a constitutional monarchy. However, while the English monarch’s power was being limited at home, the power of the … Read more

Coastal Regulation Zone

 Act of 1991 To regulate development activity on India’s coastline The approach adopted by the first notification was to define the ‘High Tide Line’ and ‘Coastal Regulation Zone’ and thereafter specify the activities permitted and restricted in the vicinity of the CRZ This regulated zone was further divided into four categories (CRZ 1-4) as per permitted … Read more

Wetland Conservation Programme, Ramsar Convention and The Montreux Record.

Wetland Conservation Programme Wetlands are lands transitional between terrestrial and aquatic system where the water table is usually near the water surface and land is covered by shallow water. Essential as: control floods, water treatment, recharging of water sources, reduce sediments, check soil erosion, bulwark against encroachment by the sea, winter resort for birds and … Read more

Sustainable Development

Bruntland Report (1983) was the first publication and recognition of the term ‘Sustainable Development’ “meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the needs of the future generation” Three pillars of sustainable development (Bruntland) Care and respect for People, Planet and Prosperity (Commercial Activities) <hence poverty alleviation, conservation and business development> These three pillars … Read more

Important Environmental Treaties

Treaty Signed/Into force Major Points Aarhus Convention on Access to information for public participation in decision making and access to justice in environmental matters 1998 Aarhus is a Danish city Adopted at the fourth ministerial conference in the ‘Environment for Europe’ process Links environmental rights and human rights   India – No Vienna Convention for … Read more

Convention on Biodiversity, Nagoya Protocol and Achii Targets

Convention on Biodiversity Opened for signature at the Earth Summit in 1992 and entered into force on December 29, 1993 There are 193 parties. Its secretariat is based in Montreal, Canada. US has signed but not ratified the treaty. It is an international legally-binding treaty with three main goals: conservation of biodiversity sustainable use of … Read more

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