West Bengal human development index
India’s sixth largest economy is West Bengal which recorded a gross state domestic product (GSDP) of US$ 132.86 billion in 2014-15. Further, it’s the 2ndmost densely populated state within the country, and is home to one of the most important domestic consumer markets. West Bengal GSDP expanded at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 11.06 per cent from 2004-05 to the year 2014-15. Agriculture is that the chief occupation within the state and contributed 18.8 per cent to the GSDP in 2014-15. Its location advantage makes the state a conventional marketplace for eastern India, the Northeast, Nepal and Bhutan. it’s additionally a strategic entry purpose for markets in Southeast Asia. the value of operational a business is lower in Kolkata than in other metropolitan cities. Throughout FY 2000-15, the state attracted total foreign direct investment (FDI) of US$ 2.9 billion. The common annual NSDP rate from 2004-05 to 2014-15 was about 11.05 per cent. The state’s per capita GSDP in 2014-15 was US$ 1,450.0 as compared to US$ 555 in 2004-05. The per capita GSDP increased at a compound annual rate (CAGR) of 10.08 per cent between 2004-05 and 2014-15. In 2014-15, the tertiary sector contributed 60.2 per cent to the state’s GSDP at issue value, followed by the primary sector (24.9 per cent) and secondary sector (14.9 per cent).
West Bengal is that the only state in India to own been dominated endlessly for quite a quarter of a century by a Left Front government, that has been driven by a vision of political, economic and social modification that has been completely different from that ascertained among most alternative state governments or the central government. This vision has determined attention on 2 specific however inter-related methods at the state level: reform, as well as each greater security of tenure to tenant cultivators and distribution of unconditional land; and spread and people’s participation through panchayat establishments.
With a population of concerning 82 million in 2001, West Bengal is that the fourth most thickly settled state, with the best population density of 904 persons per sq. km (nearly three times the national average). Larger population pressure inevitably puts additional pressure on basic infrastructure likewise as on the availability of health and education services. The extraordinarily high population density clearly affects per capita resource allocation; therefore no matter West Bengal has achieved has been in spite of this important negative issue of getting the best population density within the entire nation. The variation across districts during this regard additionally has to be borne in mind when considering inter-district differences in human development indicators.
Both material and human development in West Bengal have sturdy regional dimensions. The central importance of Kolkata means levels of human development tend to be highest within the bigger Kolkata region, and deteriorate in concentric circles in line with distance from this region.
Given this, there are some regions that need explicit attention from the perspective of human development. There are unit 3 specific sub-regions in West Bengal that face specific issues of development and constraints on up the conditions of well-being, thanks to historical reasons, or distance and location concerns, or social composition. Therefore, they have a tendency to be additional backward in terms of infrastructure development and also human development indicators. The Paschimanchal region within the west of the state spans the all the blocks of Birbhum and Purulia, and a few blocks of Bankura, Medinipur and Bardhaman. These blocks are comparatively isolated, with poor transport infrastructure, and thus tend to be backward. In North Bengal, the Uttar Banga and DGHC blocks span the 2 major watersheds of the Tista and also the Mahananda. The mountainous blocks of the DGHC region, the terai and also the Duars share some characteristics, though Koch Behar is additional just like the 2 Dinajpur districts. During this region, the presence of Siliguri in Darjeeling district creates a additional developed centre, however the economic and developmental linkages to close areas are still weak.
Within North Bengal, 3 sub-regions may be known with completely different characteristics: (i) Malda and Dinajpur
(ii) Darjeeling, Cooch Behar and Jalpaiguri and
(iii) The “chicken neck” of North Dinajpur.
These areas aren’t solely geo-ecologically distinct, however additionally were till recently separated with very little interaction in terms of transport or trade, particularly when the Partition of India broke pre-existing links. The region as a full includes a lot of higher rate of immigration than alternative components of West Bengal. The benefits area unit that migrants bring in new skills and additionally tend to be higher educated, in order that they use native instructional and alternative resources higher. However this additionally raises queries, as an example the matter of the native disadvantaged teams, like the SCs/STs within the space.
West Bengal highlights 3 important relationships that have crucial implications for human development anyplace. The primary is that the inherent problem of an autonomous development flight inside a constituent province of a rustic, even with a federal system of state, and also the role of broader economics processes in decisive outcomes even inside the state. The second is that the importance of mobilising resources for public intervention, and also the attainable limitations upon the advance of human development obligatory by commercial enterprise constraints. The third is that the crucial two-way relationship between institutional modification and economic processes, likewise because the importance of continuing mobilisation and involvement of normal individuals within the infrastructure and delivery mechanisms necessary for improving conditions of human development.
West Bengal has been successful in bringing down each birth rates and death rates, with one in every of the foremost speedy declines in birth rate in India. Expectancy within the State is well on top of the national average. The sex ratio in West Bengal has shown improvement in recent times, so it’s currently simply on top of the national average, whereas the 0-6 years sex quantitative relation is far beyond the all-India average. West Bengal includes a far better record of guaranteeing the lives of girl infants than India as a full.
The state Human Development Report (HDR) brings out a mixed image of the present state of human development in state, with some vital successes and additionally some areas of inadequate action, additionally as bound rising issues.
The state HDR analyses 2 major public initiatives that have characterized the State for the last 26 years, i.e. land reforms and decentralization and has examined their effects on human development. Further, it makes an attempt to grasp the explanations on why the positive effects of those initiatives haven’t been a lot of pronounced on human development attainments.
In addition to the “traditional” problems lined in an exceedingly human development report like health, education and livelihoods, and also the chapters ashore reforms and decentralization, the West Bengal HDR analyses problems like human security, material conditions, environment and issues of special regions inside the State.