It is also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever. It is a severe acute viral illness which during an outbreak cause the fatality rate can go upto 90%.
The first confirmed Ebola Virus Disease in human was reported in 1976 at Democratic Republic of Congo.
Transmission of Ebola Virus Disease
Ebola is introduced into the human population through close contact with blood secretion organ or other body Fluids of infected animals. In Africa infection has been documented through the handling of infected chimpanzee ,Gorilla, monkeys, antilopes.
Ebola than spread in the community through human to human transmission which infection resulting from direct contact through broken skin, with blood secretion organ of the body Fluids of infected people and indirect contact with environment contaminated with such fluid, burial ceremonies in which mourners have direct contact with the body of the disease person can also play a role in the transmission.
Man who has recovered from disease can still transmit the virus through their semen for up to 7 week after recovery from illness.
Healthcare workers have frequently been infected while treating patient of Ebola virus disease. This has occured through close contact with patient when infection control precaution are not strictly practiced.
Sign and Symptoms of Ebola Virus Disease
- it is characterized by sudden onset of fever
- intense weakness
- muscle pain
- this is followed by vomiting and diarrhoea
- Rash impaired kidney and
- decrease in platelet count causes due to internal and external bleeding
period of incubation is 2 to 21 days
- antibody captured Elisa technique
- there is no licenced Vaccine and patient requires intensive support and care.
- Patients dehydrates excessively, so should be given oral dehydration therapy that is a solution of electrolyte
- Z-mapp:- the most potential treatment prepared by mapp bio pharmaceutical company of United States of America. it contains a cocktail of 3 humanised monoclonal or monospecific antibodies which can destroy the virus antigens.
Prevention and control of EVD
- Routine cleaning or disinfection of pigs and monkeys farms with detergent which are effective in deactivation of virus.
- educating Public Health messages during an outbreak for reducing the risk of wildlife human transmission from contact with the infected monkeys and consumption of their home made raw food should be prevented
- then animals should be handled by gloves, animal meat and blood products should be thoroughly cooked.
- reduce the risk of human to human transmission by using gloves by the health workers,regular washing and in the hospital
- there should be prompt and save burial of disease person without coming to direct contacts
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