Rajasthan : Language and Dialect for RAS(RTS) Prelims

Rajasthani Languages

Evolution of rajasthani languages from Shaurseni Prakrit

Saureni Prakrit is then developed into:-

  • Gurjar in western region
  • Shaurseni in eastern region (Apram bhasha)



  • Maru Gurjar or old Rajasthani
  • its common language of Rajasthan and Gujrat
  • 1st work was Bhrateshwar Bahubali Ghor by Vajrasensuri in 1168 ad
  • In 15th century it evolved to Dingal
  • Dingal was generally used in ballards and chronicles of warriors heroic deeds in the mewar and Marwar region




  • It developed in Pingal which is a rajasthani variation of Braj Bhasha
  • It was largely used for devotional and erotic poetry


  • they preserves the glorious and martial deeds of their patrons
  • Khayat- Chronicles
  • Vats- Accounts of past events
  • Vigats-Gazettes


Decline of Rajasthani Languages after the British rule was mainly due to following factors:-

  • Outdated feudal system
  • Growth of Printing press,newspaper and free  discussion was largely discouraged in the princely states.
  • Royal patronage to rajasthani was largely discontinued.
  • Influence of Hindi
  • Growth of Khardi boli

Present status of Rajasthani Languages and their main variations –

  • Kamdhari- Nagari script mainly used in administration
  • Jain style- Manuscript writing
  • Modiya- Used by Trading class
  • Shasti- Common people language.



Rajasthani Dialact


The Rajasthani languages belong to the Western Indo-Aryan language family. However, they are controversially conflated with the Hindi languages of the Central-Zone in the Indian national census, among other places. The varieties of the Rajasthani language are:[7]


  • Rajasthani :the common lingua franca of Rajasthani people and is spoken by over 18 million people in different parts of Rajasthan.


  • Marwari: the most spoken Rajasthani in the historic Marwar region of western Rajasthan.


  • Malvi: Spoken in the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh.


  • Dhundhari: Spoken speakers in the Dhundhar region of Rajasthan.


  • Harauti: Spoken in the Hadoti region of Rajasthan.


  • Mewari: Spoken in the Mewar region of Rajasthan.


  • Mewati: Spoken in the Mewat region, comprising Haryana and Rajasthan.


  • Shekhawati: Spoken in the Shekhawati region of Rajasthan.


  • Bagri: Spoken in northern Rajasthan and northwestern Haryana. There are also speakers situated in southern Punjab.


  • Nimadi: Spoken in the Nimar region of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.


  • Other Rajasthani languages are Dhatki, Godwari, Gujari, Gurgula, Goaria and Lambadi.
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